Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

This page presents high-level information for Turkmenistan’s climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate),  D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).
Turkmenistan’s area falls under the cold semi-arid climate classifications, with the Karakum desert being the dominant feature of its topography. Its continental location means that summers are hot, dry and long, with average temperatures of 27 – 29°C between June and August and maximum temperatures occasionally approaching 50°C in the hottest parts of the country. Northern areas of Turkmenistan experience longer, colder winters and more snow, as well as shorter, relatively milder summer weather. On the other hand, southern regions experience milder winters, with average temperatures well above freezing point, and hottest summers.
While overall annual precipitation levels are low throughout Turkmenistan, there is a consistent seasonal trend. The bulk of the rain each year falls in the four months from January to April, whereas many parts of the country receive little or no rain during the months from June to September. The country’s predominantly flat terrain allows for regular and strong winds which are favorable for the generation of dust storms.


Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature


Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020


Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Changes and Significance