Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

This page presents high-level information for Türkiye’s climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate),  D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).
Türkiye is situated between the subtropical zone and temperate zone. The climate zones observed in Türkiye are the Mediterranean Climate where summers are hot and dry and the winters are mild and rainy; the Black Sea Climate where summers are cool and winters are warm in the coastal area and snowy and cold at the higher parts; the Terrestrial Climate where temperature differences between summer and winter and day and night are large, and the Marmara Climate showing the characteristics of a climate transition between the Terrestrial, Black Sea and Mediterranean climates. Türkiye receives most of its rainfall in winter and spring. In summer, the amount of precipitation decreases while the temperature and evaporation increases. Annual long-term mean precipitation is 574 mm. Meanwhile, the number of meteorological extreme events has increased particularly since 2000 (1981 – 2017).

Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020 Turkiye

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020

Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Changes and Significance