Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

This page presents high-level information for Azerbaijan’s climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).
Azerbaijan’s climate is highly varied, with different areas of the country containing examples of nine of the world’s eleven climate zones. This includes semi-arid zones in the center and east of the country (including the capital, Baku), temperate zones in the north, continental zones in the west, and tundra zones, meaning that there are marked variations in average annual temperature and precipitation in different regions. In general, more mountainous parts of Azerbaijan receive higher levels of precipitation and lower average temperatures than the central lowlands and Caspian Sea coast, where the climate is drier and hotter. Azerbaijan experiences hot summers (especially in lowland areas) and moderate winters. The average monthly temperatures vary significantly between different regions and altitudes across Azerbaijan. Average temperatures in Baku and other parts of the east and southeast reach approximately 27ºC during the hottest months of July and August, while temperatures during these months remain between 15ºC and 20ºC in parts the mountainous north and west. Similarly, during the winter (December to February) temperatures in Baku average between 3ºC and 4ºC, whereas in western and northern areas average monthly temperatures fall to between −5ºC and −10ºC. Average rainfall in Azerbaijan follows a bimodal distribution throughout the months of the year, with average levels above 40 millimeters (mm) per month from April to June, and again in October. Precipitation is highest in May and June in the northern and western areas of Azerbaijan, where it can exceed 100 mm per month.

Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020 Azerbaijan

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020

Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Changes and Significance