Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

This page presents high-level information for Afghanistan’s climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group.
Afghanistan has an arid continental climate with considerable temperature and precipitation variation between seasons. Temperatures also vary greatly by altitude, with mountainous regions experiencing temperatures well below zero on an annual basis, yet southern arid regions regularly experiencing temperatures over 35ºC. Precipitation varies considerably with topography, with the southwestern arid region typically experiencing less than 150 millimeters (mm) of precipitation each year, and the northeastern mountain range experiencing more than 1,000 mm. Conditions in Afghanistan also have a complex intra-annual interaction with large-scale climate phenomena, specifically the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole. The latter is associated with drought conditions in Afghanistan.

Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020 Afghanistan.

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020

Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Changes and Significance