Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

This page presents high-level information for Tajikistan’s climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry) , C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).
Aridity, extreme temperatures, and significant intra-annual and regional variability are predominant characteristics of Tajikistan’s climate. Variability is driven by Tajikistan’s position at the intersection of atmospheric circulations from the tropics to the southeast and Siberia to the north. Annual mean temperatures vary from 17°C in the south to -6°C in the lower Pamirs. Maximum temperatures are typically observed in July and minimum in January. In East Pamir, minimum temperatures below -50°C have been recorded, whereas in the south, maximum surface air temperature can exceed 40°C. The annual precipitation in lowland, hot deserts of northern Tajikistan, and cold mountain deserts of east Pamir averages from 70 millimeters (mm) to 160 mm, whereas in central Tajikistan precipitation can exceed 1,800 mm per year. The nation receives negligible precipitation during the months of July, August, and September, contributing to frequent droughts.

Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020 Tajikistan

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020

Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Changes and Significance