Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

This page presents high-level information for Pakistan’s climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate),  D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).
Pakistan lies in a temperate zone and its climate is as varied as the country’s topography—generally dry and hot near the coast and along the lowland plains of the Indus River, and becoming progressively cooler in the northern uplands and Himalayas. Four seasons are recognized: 1) a cool, dry winter from December to February; 2) a hot, dry spring from March through May; 3) the summer rainy season, also known as the southwest monsoon period, occurring from June to September; and 4) the retreating monsoons from October to November. A majority of the country receives very little rainfall, with the exception of the Northern regions, where monsoons can bring upwards of 200 mm a month from July to September. Inter-annual rainfall varies significantly, often leading to successive patterns of floods and drought. El Niño is a significant influence on climate variability in Pakistan, with anomalies in both temperature and flood frequency and impact correlated with the El Niño cycle.
Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020 Afghanistan.

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020

Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Changes and Significance