Climate Overview

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020

Afghanistan has an arid continental climate with considerable temperature and precipitation variation between seasons. Temperatures also vary greatly by altitude, with mountainous regions experiencing temperatures well below zero on an annual basis, yet southern arid regions regularly experiencing temperatures over 35ºC. Precipitation varies considerably with topography, with the southwestern arid region typically experiencing less than 150 millimeters (mm) of precipitation each year, and the northeastern mountain range experiencing more than 1,000 mm. Conditions in Afghanistan also have a complex intra-annual interaction with large-scale climate phenomena, specifically the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole. The latter is associated with drought conditions in Afghanistan.

Observed Climatology of Mean-Temperature 1991-2020 Iran, Islamic Rep

Observed Average Seasonal Mean Temperature

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest mean temperatures reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020.

Observed Average Seasonal Minimum Temperature

Observed Average Seasonal Maximum Temperature

Observed Seasonal Precipitation

The identified sub-national units with the highest and lowest precipitation sums reflect the latest climatology, 1991-2020

Trends and Significant Change against Natural Variability

Trends within Variability

Variability and Changes in Variability

Change and Significance